UPDATE (Nov 2013): Pushbullet app and extension does all the following in a much better and integrated way!
Following I will describe some example methods to boost up interoperability between your computer and your Android device, if you have any better solution/suggestion please consider writing a comment.
How many times did you have to copy an address, a number, or some text from your Android device to a PC (or vice versa) manually? Well a quick solution, for instance, is of course to send an email to yourself… But there’s a better solution, installing Clipsync on your phone (or tablet) and computer the clipboard is shared and Copy/Paste operation will work like a charm. Especially when you have to do it multiple times. Just start up the app from Android when you need it, so it won’t consume any battery and resources (server app running on the pc).
Web pages can be send to your phone/tablet in a matter of seconds, this via Chrome to Phone app and Google Chrome to Phone extension (a similar one exists for Firefox) this will open web pages automatically or, if a map, Google Maps. To do the other way around I suggest using Pocket (also app and extension) or, again, Gmail.
Files (wireless solutions, no Bluetooth)
The service I commonly use is Google Drive, and its apps installed on the PC and on the smartphone, in this way it’s pretty fast to send files to your device: just drag them on Google Drive folder from your computer and then access them from the phone/tablet (but at the moment you can’t share files from the mobile device to Drive), in this way you will also have a backup copy on Google’s servers. A similar alternative is the well known dropbox.
Other possibilities, that link directly the two devices without uploading to a server, are apps like Samba Filesharing, ES File Explorer File Manager (FTP and SMB) or WiFi File Transfer; but I honeslty find them all too slow or buggy.
Another notable app is Fast File Transfer that will use your phone tethering capabilities to share files to any other device able to connect to WiFi. In this way you can share files to iPhones (not having Bluetooth) and other devices without using any internet connection since the file transfer happens via the local WiFi network.
Actually most of the times, the fastest solution of all for me is just to use Gmail (yes, again, since it’s usually open either on the PC and on my phone), by sending an email to myself. The push notification arrives straight away and upload size limit is very generous.
Of course if Android and Computer are NOT on the same local network the only easy solutions to do what stated above are the ones passing via a Web Server, so Drive or Dropbox for files, Pocket for links and, for anything, Gmail :)!